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KA REP PHAN KA LA NANG HIAR NAMAR KI KATTO KATNE TYLLI KI DAW

Bah K.D. Kharkongor

(Ka khyndew ka bank kynshew pisa ba kordor tam na baroh ki bank ha sla pyrthei)
U phan u long uwei na ki marbam ba kongsan bha ha manla ki ïing ki sem jongngi ki paid Khasi—Pnar namar u long u jhur ne jingbam uba baroh baroh ngi ïa bang ban bam. Hynrei ngin ym lah pat ban len ba ka rep phan ha jylla jongngi khamtam ha East Khasi Hills, West bad South West Khasi Hills ka la nang hiar arsut arsut haba ïa nujor bad ki 25, 30 ne 40 snem kiba la leit bad kane ka jinghiar ka la ktah shibun eh ïa ka kamai kajih jong kito ki ïing ki sem bad ki shnong ki thaw kiba ju khlaiñ bha ban rep ïa u. Ki shnong kiba ju pynmih phan da ki trok ne ki phew trok ha ka shi taïew taïew mynta pat la jynjar shibun ban ïoh phan wat tang shi trok rit ne shi Tata Pickup. Ha ïing ki nongrep lada ha thiar buh kba shlei smam u kba, ha tyngier stem kmur ki riewhadem, ha sem phan dap u phan bad ha ki sem ri jingri khapngiah ki blang, sniang, syiar ne masi ka khmat u nongrep ka la phuhmut phuhmat bad bhabriew ruh ka mynsiem namar la shngaiñ bad pahuh ka bam ryngkat ka kamai kajih ïa ka ïing ka sem bad ki khun ki kti jong u. Kaba sngewsih pat ka long ba kane kam jia long shuh kumta ha kiba bun ki ïing jong ki nongrep khamtam ha ka rep phan namar ki katto katne tylli kine ki daw ba la kdew kumne harum :-
1) U Symbai – Jan baroh ki nongrep phan jong ka West bad S.W. Khasi Hills ki dang rep bad pynroi hi da u symbai phan uba ki ju rep manla u snem hala ki kper ne ki lyngkha jong ki bad une u symbai u long u symbai (tymmen) uba la hiar pateng ym tang naduh ka por ki kmie ki kpa jong ki hynrei wat naduh ki mei-ieid pa-ieid ruh. Kine ki symbai phan ki long kiba la kham swai bad tlot ka bor ka sor (degenerated) namar ki long kiba ym duna ka ‘rta ïa ka 30-40 snem shaneng. Hynrei ïa u symbai phan ba bha bad ba dang khlaiñ bor pat uba la tip kum u Certified Seed dei tang khyndiat ngut ki nongrep kiba ïoh ban rep lyngba ka scheme ba la tip kum ka Tuber Crop Development Scheme, khamtam ki nongrep jong ka West bad South West Khasi Hills.
Ïa u Certified Seed uba bha bad ba khlaiñ bor uba la tip kum u Breeders’ Seed la wan rah thymmai jan manla u snem na Himachal Pradesh bad pynroi ïa u ha ka farm sorkar kaba don ha 6 mer, Upper Shillong khnang ban pynmih bad pynroi ïa ki symbai ba la tip kum u Foundation Seed I & Foundation Seed II. Na u Foundation Seed II la pynkha roi shuh shuh ha kane ka farm khnang ban ïoh ïa u symbai ba la tip kum u G-1 ne u pateng banyngkong. Ïa une u G-1 la sam pat mar mar khyndiat sha ki nongrep kiba la dep rejister bad ka ophis u District Horticulture Officer (DHO), ïa kiba la tip kum ki RG ne Registered Grower khnang ba kin pynroi shuh shuh ha ki kper jong ki ban ïoh pat ha u snem uba bud ïa u pateng uba ar uba la tip kum u G-2. Kine ki RG ki pynroi symbai ruh sa ïa u G-2 sha u G-3 (pateng ba lai) bad ïa u G-3 sha u G-4 (pateng ba saw). Ïa kine ki symbai G-2, G-3 bad G-4 ki Registered Grower ki sa die ne supply kylla sha ka ophis u DHO bad na kane ka ophis ki sa ai shiteng dor pat sha kito ki nongrep kiba la wan buh application lypa. Wat la katta ruh hangne ha E.K.Hills dang don bun ki nongrep kiba dang rep da u symbai lajong uba ki pynroi hala ki kper ne ki lyngkha bad u bym dei satia uta u Certified Seed. Ka daw tynrai balei ba dang don bun bah ki nongrep ki bym pat rep da une u Certified Seed dei namar ba ïa ka jylla Meghalaya la mang duna palat ïa u Breeders Seeds na ka jaka pynmih symbai kaba don ha Himachal Pradesh. Hooid hangne ha East Khasi Hills watla ngi don sa kawei ka jaka pynroi symbai phan jong ka sorkar pdeng lyngba ka ICAR hangtei ha Upper Shillong bad kaba la tip kum ka Central Potato Research Station, pynban ka jingpynmih ne jingshalan symbai na kane ka Station sha ki nongrep ka jylla kam pat long satia kaba biang.
2) Ka rukom thung phan – Watla da ki spah bad hajar ngut ki nongrep ki la ïoh jinghikai kiba bniah bad ba janai lyngba ki training prokram kiba ju pynlong ha ki shnong jong ki kumno ban thung phan da ka rukom kaba dei kat kum kane ka juk pynban dang duna palat ki nongrep ki ban bud ïa kita ki jinghikai. Ka jinghikai barabor ka long ba ym ju dei ban thung ïa u phan ha ki thliew ne da kata kaba ki ong ka traditional pit method hynrei dei ban thung ha ki nur nala (syriem kumba thung ïa u motor) bad ïa kane la tip kum ka furrow and ridges method. Haba thung thliew ïa u phan yn donkam symbai shibun katba ha ki nur nala pat ïa u symbai yn donkam kham duna. Nangta ruh ynda la tih phan ka jingmih phan ka duna bha na kaba thung thliew bad ka kham bun pat na kaba thung ha ki nala ne ki furrow. Shuh shuh haba thung thliew ki nongrep ki buh shwa na trai duh ïa u symbai phan, nangta ki sa tap pat da ka sboh phlang. sboh ñiut ne sboh masi bad sa buh ne ber na jrong da ki sboh dawai (chemical fertilizers). Haba thung phan da kumne ka long bad syriem thik kum kito ki briew kiba bat ïa ka pliang ja halor ka khlieh bad sa sdang pat ban bam ja!!! Ha ka sboh ñiut, sboh masi bad sboh dawai ki don ki jingbam (nutrients) jong ki jingthung ba la tip lyngkot kum ki NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potash) hynrei ïa kine ki jingbam ki nongrep ki buh pynban ha khlieh jong u phan kaba long da khongpong ha kaba ïadei bad ka rep ne thung ïa ki jingthung bapher bapher. Ka por thung phan ha ri jongngi ka dei ha ki bnai tlang ki bnai tyrkhong (Feb/March) ha ka por ba ka khyndew ka dang tyrkhong raw raw. Nalorkata ki sboh ba pyndonkam bunsien ki long kiba tyrkhong bad bym don jingsngem eiei. Kumta u phan ym tang ba u shim por ban mih shylluit hynrei u slem ruh ban ïoh ïa ki jingbam NPK namar la buh ïa ki na jrong u phan. Lada yn thung phan ha ki nur nala donkam ban ber shwa da ki sboh dawai pynbud sa ki sboh ñiut bad tap khyndew pat kumba tap stong ïa ki lum jingtep ba tep briew.
Ki jingbam NPK ki don la la ka bynta ban bsa bad tei ïa ki dkhot met jong u jingthung khnang ba u jingthung un long uba san uba plung bad u ban bah soh kham bun ne kham heh. Ka jingbam Nitrogen ka pynjyrngam ïa ki jingthung khnang ban bha ka shet jingbam ki jingthung (photosynthesis) bad ka Phosphorous pat ka ïarap ban pynspeh ne pynseilung ïa ki symbai ki rnai bad ha kajuh ka por ka pynkhlaiñ ïa ki thied ki jaw bad ka ïarap ruh ïa ki soh ne ki symboh ban ih kham kloi. U Potash u aibor ïa u jingthung ba un lah ban ïakhun pyrshah ïa ki khñiang ne jingpang (kum ka pang pyut ne ïapïong). U ai bor ruh ïa u jingthung ba un lah ban shan lade pyrshah ïa ka jinghap thah bad rang tyrkhong ka suiñbneng. U jingthung ba biang potash un kham dap doh ne kham khia ka jingthew, u snep un kham rben bad lait na ka jingshah pynjulor ha ki khñiang kum u ‘ñiangbyrnai bad u soh ruh un ym jlop ne pyut kloi bad yn lah ban buh kham bun sngi ïa uta u soh ne jhur hadien bala kheit ïa u bad kane kan ïarap shibun ïa uto u phan uba ju leit shalan shabar ka jylla ban ym shah khñiot dor khah khah ha ki mahajon ne ki heh saipan na ka daw ka jingpyut kloi jong u lada ryngkhat uta u phan ula don lypa ha u ïa ka jingpang pyut kaba tang malu mala. Kane ka long kumjuh ruh ïa ki jingthung kum u sying, sohsaw bad kiwei kiwei. Halor kane ka phang ka long pat kaba sngewsih ban ong ba jan 90 na ka shispah (ne palat ia kata) ki nongrep phan kim ju pynbiang satia ïa u jingbam Potash (ne u K) ha shwa ban rep. Kumba la ïathuh da i Bah Ïan Saiborne iba trei kum u Assistant Director of Agriculture (Soil Survey) ha ophis ka rep ka riang, Shillong haduh kumba 70% ki khyndew jongngi ki long kiba duna Potash lypa.
3) Ka jingpyndonkam thurmur ïa ki sboh dawai – Ym tip shuh ka khyndew ka long kumno ha ki kper ki phrah jong kito ki nongrep kiba ju pyndonkam pathar ïa ki sboh dawai da kaba khleh lang ïa ki sboh dawai (Urea bad SSP} ryngkat bad ka shun powdar ne shun kpu (slaked lime) lane ryngkat bad u dpei ding uba ki ju lum manla ka sngi na ki dpei ïing jong ki. Don bun bha ki nongrep kiba ju leh ïa kane ka kam kaba bakla shibun namar shisien ba la khleh shun ne dpei ding kito ki dawai kin ym um shuh bad u jingthung pat un ym ïoh satia ïa ki jingbam Nitorgen (N) ne Phosphorous (P) na kito ki jingkhleh. Da kaba leh kumne u phan u hap ban shu shong shah thngan hapoh khyndew baroh shi aïom thung bad lada u ïoh jingbam ruh u shu ïoh malu mala tang na ki sboh ñiut ne sboh masi namar ki nongrep ruh kim ju ai pahuh ïa kine ki sboh kat kum ba dei ban ai.
Hooid watla ka sorkar ka la pynbna paidbah ba ka jylla jongngi kan ym pynshlur shuh ban pyndonkam ïa ki sboh dawai hynrei kaba sngewsih ka long ba mynta lei lei katto katne na ki nongdie dawai sboh (fertilizer dealers) kiba don ha kylleng kylleng ki die syndon pynban sha ki nongrep da ki dawai bala pynkhleh lypa bad ka shun ïa kiba la tip kum ka mikshor (mixture). Kane ka jingleh jong ki nongdie dawai ym dei tang ba ka long kaba bakla hynrei ka long ruh kaba beaiñ. Kito pat ki nongrep kiba ju khleh hi ïa ki dawai bad ka shun ne u dpei ding ki shu leit bret kai ïa ka pisa jong ki sha lum thik kumba leit bret ei kito ki nongrep kiba thied mixture!!! Ha kaba kut pat hap khñium bad pyrta shla “ba katba nang rep katta ruh nang syrdep!” Da ki hajar hajar ne phew hajar ngut ki nongrep ki dang pyndonkam ïa ki sboh dawai namar tang na ki sboh ñiut ne sboh mrad ki jingbam NPK ki duna palat ban pynbiang bam ïa u phan.
Ha ri India ïa ki sboh dawai la tip kum kita ki Essential Commodity kiba hap hapoh ka Essential Commodities Act (ECA) u snem 1955. Hapoh ka Section 3 jong ka ECA la pyntreikam ïa ka Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) jong u 1985. Ka FCO ka ai bor ia ki sorkar jylla ban bishar bad buddien ba kine ki dawai kin long kiba bha ka kwality bad kiba khlem khleh eiei (adulterate) ryngkat bad ki. Hapoh ka Clause 19 jong ka FCO la pyrkhing bha ia ka jingdie bad jingshna ïa ki sboh dawai bad lada don mano mano ba pynkheiñ ïa kine ki kyndon ka jingpynsajia kaba tyngeh donkam ban ai sha ki nongpynkheiñ aiñ wat da kaba set along ïa ki haduh 7 snem kynthih!!!
Kaba sumar ïa ka khyndew – Ka khyndew ka dei ka bank kynshew pisa kaba kordor na kiba kordor tam ki bank kiba don hangne ha sla pyrthei. Lada yn kynshew pisa ha kino kino ki bank kiba don ha ri India, ka sut kaba la bun eh kaba kita ki bank kin ai ha ka shisnem (12 bnai) sha ki nongkynshew kan long tang kumba 3 ne 4 % duh hynrei katba ka sut kaba ka khydew na ki kper, bri ne lyngkha ka ai, (kata ruh tang hapoh 5, 6 ne 7 bnai eiei) ka lah ban poi shaduh ka 50, 60 ne wat haduh 70-80 % shaneng. Ka khyndew ka long ka bank kynshew pisa ka ban ym ryngad noh tang ha ka shipor ka arpor lada ngin long shisha kita ki nongrep ki ban pyrkhat jngai bad ki ban pyrkhat lem ym tang ban myntoi ki khun ki ksiew hynrei wat ki ksiew jong ki ksiew ruh.
Manla ka 5 tarik u Nohprah ka dei ka sngi ha kaba satlak ka pyrthei ki rakhe ïa ka World Soil Day bad ka mat phang ba la buh na ka bynta une u snem ka long “Be the solution to soil pollution.” Ai ngin long ki nongsumar ne ki nongri nongda ïa ka khyndew ban lait na ki jingpynjot ne jingpynjulor ba bun rukom kum kaba thang bun ne ber pathar da ki sboh dawai lane ban pyntuid sha ki jaka rep ba seisoh da ka um dewïong ba jew bad ba kthang acid. Haba rakhe ïa kane ka sngi kyrpang ka pynkynmaw ïa ka jingthoh kaba ju don ha ka kamra i Bah Bary Syiem, iba dei u Joint Director ka Horticulture, Department of Agriculture kaba long ne ong kumne “Man Owes His Life To A Six Inch Layer Of Top Soil.” Hooid shisha shisha mangi ki briew ngin ym lah da lei lei ruh ban im hangne ha sla pyrthei khlem ka khyndew kaba sboh bad ba seisoh ryngkat ki tyllong um kiba rben bad ba pahuh. Kumjuh ruh ka rep phan kan ym seisoh wat lada ngin thung da ki symbai kiba kynsai bad ba khlaiñbor lane da ka rukom thung kaba dei ban thung lada ka khyndew pat ka long kaba kthang, kaba lyngki bad ruh kaba ïap. Khatduh khatwai ai ngin kyrpad ïa baroh ki nongrep kumjuh ki nongdie dawai sboh ban kynmaw lem ba ki khun ki ksiew bad ki pateng ki pakit ki donkam ruh ïa ka khyndew kaba sboh, kaba rben, kaba shngiam bad ruh kaba seisoh.
Khubei.